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Last November I blogged about the true meaning of the word “open” as it relates to OER (Open Education Resources), Open Source (software), and Open Access (journals, journal articles and textbooks). Today I want to expand a bit on the concept of Open Access (OA), and also provide a list of useful journal resources that are, in one way or another, Open Access.
If you want to know about the history of (or anything else about) OA, I suggest you reread my blog, Is it Really Open, or Google the term and choose from the 2.2 billion hits (in 0.22 seconds). One of the other things you will probably discover is that OA can be pretty complicated. For example, there are different levels of Open Access – Gold, Green, and some argue Platinum.
Open Access Platinum level means that the material is free to use and available from the publisher, as soon as the publisher makes it public – similar to MERLOT’s Journal of Learning and Teaching (JOLT).
Gold level material is usually also published by a real publisher – as opposed to self-published, but it’s usually not available for free the day it’s published. So if you want to access Gold level OA material for free, you’ll have to wait 12-18 months (the “embargo” period) after it’s been first published. If you want it sooner, you can buy it or subscribe to the journal. How and when such material becomes free depends on the policies of the publisher. Also, authors who choose to publish this way may have to give up their copyright to the publisher. When that happens, the publisher can let the author make a not-final, “preprint” version of the paper immediately available on a server other than the publisher’s. Many, if not most of IEEE’s recent journal articles are available this way.
To complicate all this a little more, some Gold publishers let authors pay a fee, after a submission has been reviewed and approved for publication, to forgo the embargo period, allowing the material to be freely available the day it’s published. That is, for a fee paid by the author, these days it’s usually between $2K-$3K (or whatever the market will bear), a Gold paper is made immediately available to readers for free, somewhat like Platinum OA.
Green OA is like a green light given by a publisher to allow the author to immediately post their work on a server other than the publisher’s, for unrestricted free access. So this is similar to Platinum in that it’s available right away, but not on the publisher’s server.
On top of all this is the matter of licensing. Who owns the article or text that is made available as Open Access? Traditionally, authors own what they write unless or until they sign away (transfer) the copyright to someone else – usually a publisher. The transfer terms and restrictions on distribution can vary, and are a matter between the author and the publisher. For true Green OA, there is no copyright transfer; authors own their material and do what they want with it. In any case, like OER, OA materials, when posted online should carry a Creative Commons license informing readers how they can use or reuse the material. The license may be issued by the author or the publisher, depending on who finally owns the copyright.
Below is a list of educational technology journals that claim to be Open Access. Because it’s hard for publishers of OA to generate the kinds of revenue they need to stay in business, there’s no guarantee that any in the list will be there when you go to find them.
American Journal of Distance Education
Asian Journal of Distance Education
British Journal of Educational Technology
European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning
HETS Online Journal
International Journal of ePortfolio
International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning
The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning
Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks (JALN)
Journal of Distance Education
Journal of Educational Technology & Society
The Journal of Educators Online
Journal of Interactive Online Learning
Journal of Instructional Pedagogies
JOLT – Journal of Online Learning and Teaching
Journal of Virtual Worlds and Education
Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration
The Texas Journal of Distance Learning
International Journal of Instructional Technology and Distance Learning (all issues)
DEANZ – The Journal of Distance Learning
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